Fols. I.1 and II.1 serve as the front and back pastedowns of Inc. 70 (fols. I.1r and II.1v are therefore not visible), fols. I.2 and II.2 as the front and end flyleaves.
Fragments from a music manuscript
Vellum. Fol. I.1: 272x183 mm (two columns); fol. I.2: 279x194 mm; fol. II.1: 273x180 mm; fol. II.2: 283x195 mm.
Fol. I.2: littera gothica textualis, late fourteenth/early fifteenth century. Fols. I.1, II.2, II.1: littera gothica textualis, late fourteenth-century, in a different hand than the one on fol. I.2.
Flourished initial on fol. I.1; flourished initial with mask on fol. I.2r; capital letter with mask on fol. I.2v.
Fragments of four leaves with musical notation
Annotation on content
The musical notation to the songs on fol. I.2 is in rhomboic form, on fols. I.1, II.1 and II.2 in square form. Fols. II.1, II.2 and I.1 (in this order) are part of a Latin musical treatise, discussing ‘de varietate et modo discantandi’ of a ‘tenor’ and a ‘discantus’, with ‘quando discantus est in dyapason supra tenorem’ on fol. II.1, ‘de dyapente supra tenorem’ on fol. II.2, and ‘Quia iam dictum est de dyapason et dyapente supra tenorem, tenore ascendente vel descendente quomodo fit discantandum. Nunc restat dicendum de modo discantandi quando discantans in unisono inchoatur’ on fol. I.1.
Annotation on the volume
The leaves serve as pastedowns and flyleaves in Groningen University Library Inc. 70; fols. I.1, I.2 and II.1 are inserted upside down. Inc. 70 is a composite volume containing two incunables, numbered 70 and 138 in A. G. Roos, Catalogus der incunabelen van de bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen (Groningen 1912). No. 70 is Angelus de Clavasio, Summa Angelica de casibus conscientiae, with additions by Hieronymus Tornieli. Strassburg, Martin Flach, 1491 (ISTC ia00721000); no. 138 is Modus legendi abbreviaturas. s.l. [Cologne], Joannes Koelhoff, the Younger, 1493 (ISTC im00749500).
According to a note on fol. II.1r (the back pastedown): ‘Item monete 1491 xiiij stüferos summa angelica modus legendi duos stüferos planatura totius iiij- stüferos et pro compactione x stüferos heccomputatafaciunt aureum renensem et iij- stüferos hec acta 1497’, Summa Angelica was bought in 1491 for 14 ‘stuivers’, Modus legendi for two. The cost of having the book levelled and bound, which was done in 1497, was 3½ and 10 stuivers. The total costs (29½ stuivers) amounted to one golden Rhine guilder and 3½ stuivers. The binding is in a style used in Groningen. Comparable notes written by the same hand about the cost of binding occur in two other incunables which were both owned by the clergyman (‘clericus’) Hilbrandus Wissinck, as is mentioned in the inscriptions of the heirs who in their turn bequeathed the books to the library of St Martin’s Church, Groningen. It may therefore be assumed that it was Wissinck who had the two incunables bound into the present volume.
Because of the similarities between the vellum of all four leaves, their ruling and decoration, it is not improbable that the four manuscript leaves now serving as pastedowns and flyleaves were once part of the same book.
Inc. 70 was acquired before 1669, as Angelus de Clavasio’s Summa angelica is mentioned in G. Lammers, Catalogus Librorum Bibliothecae Illustris Ac Almae Universitatis Illustrium & Praepotentium Groningae & Omlandiae D. D. Ordinum (Groningen 1669), the first printed catalogue of Groningen University Library. It probably arrived as part of the library of St Martin’s Church which was transferred to the university in the 1520s.
Jos.M.M. Hermans, Het middeleeuwse boek in Groningen (Groningen 19812) no. 26, p. 113 − Maria van Daalen and Frank Harrison, ‘Two keyboard intabulations of the late fourteenth century on a manuscript leaf now in The Netherlands’, Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis 34 (1984), 97-108 − Eugeen Schreuers, An anthology of music fragments from the Low Countries (Middle Ages-Renaissance) (Leuven 1995) − Michael Scott Cuthbert, Trecento fragments and polyphony beyond the codex Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University (2006) − Michael Scott Cuthbert, ‘Esperance and the French song in foreign sources’, Studi musicali 36 (2007) 3-20 − Digital image archive of medieval music www.diamm.ac.uk